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Is-Ought Gap: From Facts to Values

Introduction Imagine you are watching a meat-eater and a vegan debate whether we should eat animals. The meat-eater says that eating meat can’t be bad because we evolved to eat me...

Counterexamples: Rejecting the Universal

Introduction Imagine you’re in the lunch line with your friend Omar. The man serving your food is especially grumpy and scolds Omar for taking too many french fries. “Ugh,” Omar t...

Correlation vs Causation: The Missing Link

Background Congratulations, you’ve become the newest detective on the police force. It’s a bright summer day when you get your first case. There’s been a spike in thefts down by t...

Bivalence and the Excluded Middle: True, False, or Neither?

Introduction Are you tall or not tall? You’re probably thinking, “It depends” or “It’s not exactly one or the other.” Tallness doesn’t seem to be something you either have or don’...

Alternative Explanations: Exploring Other Whys

Introduction  Think of the last time you were rejected for something—a scholarship, an internship, or a spot on a sports team. How did you explain it to yourself? Did you blame it...

Ambiguity: That’s Not What I Meant

Have You Ever? Have you ever seen a person in a building with a dinosaur? Chances are, you’re baffled that I’d even ask that. After all, dinosaurs went extinct long before humans ...