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Is-Ought Gap: From Facts to Values

Introduction Imagine you are watching a meat-eater and a vegan debate whether we should eat animals. The meat-eater says that eating meat can’t be bad because we evolved to eat me...

The Problem of Evil: Is God Good?

Problem There’s a popular dinnertime prayer that goes, “God is good. God is great. Let us thank him for our food. By his hands, we may be fed. Give us Lord our daily bread.” Accor...

Alliteration: A Simple Subject to Study Successfully!

Introduction Susie sells seashells by the seashore since Sheldon successfully sells snow cones standing by shambles of sad snowmen. Her partner Peter Piper picks pecks of pickled ...

Utilitarianism: For the Greater Good

Introduction Chad has 30 cars, enough to drive a different car every day of the month. He has plenty of money in the bank, so he does not need to sell the cars to support himself....

Pathos: Getting Emotional

Introduction Euan is running for the president of the newly founded sustainability club. In his campaign speech, he says: “Every day, birds in our community are losing their lives...

Ethos: Trust me!

Introduction The Student Government Association at Big Town University is having a meeting to address requests to reconfigure the library.  Amazi, a computer science student, i...

Logos: That Sounds Reasonable

Introduction It is Friday and Mr. Smith’s students are hoping he will cut class short. Cody shouts, “Mr. Smith, let us go home early!” “No way,” Mr. Smith says. Then Zara says, “M...

What Is It Like to Be a Bat?: I’m Batman! (Kind of…)

Problem What is it like to be a bat? What is it like to perceive your surroundings using echolocation, to fly, and to hang upside down to sleep? As humans, we can imagine what it ...